I read about the belief of Mutazilites that the Quran as created. What lead them to have such a belief? Do you consider their belief to be rigtht? Please explain in detail.
The exact reason as to how the Mu’tazilites came to believe that the Qur’an was created is unknown to me. However, a close study of them reveals that they may have arrived at this conclusion by their methodological reasoning. They approached understanding religion through rationalistic concepts. They contended that God was only one and had the Qur’an been uncreated it would be another eternal entity alongside God. This goes against their very strict concept of Tawhid (i.e. God’s Unity). The concept of the uncreated Qur’an was one of five foundations of Mu’tazilite beliefs. Its basis rests on the idea that God is the only eternally existing being and that nothing can share in this attribute. Had the Qur’an also been an eternally existing entity that never came into being then it would share in this eternity with God and thereby negate the very concept of the Oneness of God.
The Mu’tazilite ideology gained acceptance during the caliphate of Al Ma’mun and because of this political support their concepts became the dogma of the land. Hence there ideologies became part of the law so much so that an inquisition-like effort took place to weed out those who did not ascribe to their doctrine. Schools were developed to propagate the Mu’tazilite concepts and those who did not ascribe to their beliefs were severely punished or killed. One of the scholars that rejected Mu’tazilite beliefs was Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, who was imprisoned for refusing to submit to their ideas. However, not too long after the caliphate of Al Ma’mun and his son and his grandson, the Mu’tazilites lost political power and their ideologies faded shortly thereafter.
As to whether we consider their beliefs correct or not does not relate to Islamic tenets, hence not one we are concerned with. The createdness or uncreatedness of the Qur’an is not a matter of Islamic doctrine it is a Muslim philosophical argument. It plays no role in the relationship between humanity and God nor does it concern the spirituality fostered by Islam.
I hope I have clarified the issue.
God knows best.