MONDAY, 25 APRIL 2005 03:20 FARHAN KHAN HITS: 1178
The Arabic word “Khilafa’h” should be taken in its literal meaning which is ‘Rule’ or ‘Government’ . It’s not the specific term of the Shari’ah. However, nowadays, this word implies to the common leadership as in single state of all Muslims in the world to establish the laws of Islamic Sharia’h. There is no basis for this definition in the Qur’an or the Sunn’ah. However the first one is linguistic meaning from the Arabic language.
Keeping in mind the above definition, let us read the following Ahadith including you put up.
“When allegiance (bay`ah) is pledged for two rulers (Khaleefahs), kill the latter among the two.”
(Sahih Muslim : 3444)
The referred narrative ascribed to the Prophet(pbuh) is a directive to refrain people to engage in mutiny against the state. This is the common rule throughout the world for each country, to safeguard against anarchy in the land and mutiny against the state. Now the original definition of ‘Khilaf’ah’ fits here but nothing to do with second fabricated definition.
The chain of these similar Ahadith pertain totally mirrored image of the second definition,
“Whoever frees a hand from obedience [to his ruler] shall meet God, on the Day of Judgment, in a state that he shall have no excuse [for his behavior]. Whoever dies without allegiance [to his ruler], dies a death of Jahiliyyah”.
(Sahih Muslim : 3441)
The above Hadith directs Muslims to remain loyal and obedience towards the ruler and when a rule is established. Assuredly, that could only be possible when an established state already exists. Now there are many Ahadith which back me up including yours. If you put it the way the wrong definition of Khilafa’h goes, certainly, you will get some ‘interpretations’ of your own.
Once a companion of the Prophet (pbuh) asked him regarding his personal duties and obligations under a situation of anarchy and possible mutiny, where no rule exists nor any single ruler may be considered as truly representing the Muslims. The Prophet (pbuh) replied:
“Then you must stay away from each of these groups, even if you have to take shelter under a tree for the rest of your life”.(Bukhari : 3338)
“There shall soon be preferential treatment [by the rulers] and other deeds, which you will find abhorrent. They asked: ‘O Prophet, what do you direct us to do, under such circumstances?’ The Prophet (pbuh) said: ‘You must fulfill the duties that lie upon you’ and ask God for your rights’.”
(Bukhari : 3330)
“After me, you shall see preferential treatment [at the hands of the rulers] and other abhorrent deeds’. They said: ‘Messenger of God, what do you direct us to do, under such circumstances?’ The Prophet (pbuh) said: ‘Give these rulers their rights and ask God for your own rights”.
(Bukhari : 6059)
Here, Prophet(pbuh) did not direct muslims to establish an state whatsoever.
You see, there are several Ahadith which refrain people to go against the government on the contrary of your so-called statements.
Basically, the problem arises, as I stated earlier, due to the misconception of the law of Prophet hood. During the13 years spent in Makkah by Prophet(pbuh), neither Qur’anic verses directed Prophet(pbuh) to fight and then establish an stater nor did Prophet direct to his companions. However the migration of the Prophet(s) is not only just migration to one place from another. In fact, its time to give the last chance to the rejecters and to prepare for the punishment either by natural disaster or through the swords of Prophet(s) and his team.
“And when they said: ‘Our Lord, if this be the truth from you, then shower upon us stones from the sky or subject us to a painful punishment’. But your Lord was not prepared to punish them, while you were among them; and your Lord was not going to punish them, while their was a chance of their seeking forgiveness.”
(Surah Anfaal : 32 – 33)
Interestingly, these Ahadith referred above were stated at that time when the state of Madinah was established. This is the important reason why Prophet Muhammad(pbuh) migrated to Madinah, not for explicitly establish an state but to obey the specific divine instructions for such situations. Also, there are several ayah that are related to this specific law.
As the matter of fact, we’ve lost our rule over the world. We were the super power. But, this is another the law of nature of ‘ups and downs’. Now there are two kinds of movements. One is launched positively, on the basis of positive approach that work peacefully realizing the facts, on the other hand second is initiated with the sense of deprivation in order to ‘recover’ something, which has been lost. This second type of movement would never be succeeded in this world.
In need of your prayers ,