Is there a difference in the nature of Adam and those from Adam; a difference between being created and being born?
Our understanding from the sources of Islam is that Adam (pbuh) was fully human and that there was no difference between his natural makeup and ours. Thus, he was human through and through.
The issue of being born versus being created is an altogether different matter. Much of the conversation would deal with the definition of the word “create.” Being “born” in the context we are discussing is simply coming into existence through natural means. The scope of interpretation is quite narrow and limited in this case. The word “create” is far more flexible and open to much more interpretation than the word “born.” Without delving into the possibilities of meanings, we can appreciate that contextually we can gather the import of what is being said when the word “create” is being used. For example, we believe that God created us but obviously He put in place a systematic process for the purpose. On the other hand, we believe that God created existence from nothingness and established all its functions going forth as He deemed. The previous two examples should illustrate how “create” could be understood in a direct or indirect sense. Furthermore, there are all the connotations that the word “create” intimates. In relation to how the Prophet Adam was created there are a few interpretations by the scholars. This site, as well, has several articles and responses to the issue of his being.
I hope this helps.
God knows best.