روي أنه قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: المسلم من سلم المسلون من لسانه ويده والمؤمن من أمنه الناس على دمائهم وأموالهم والمجاهد من جاهد نفسه في طاعة الله والمهاجر من هجر ما نهى الله عنه.
والذي نفسي بيده لا يدخل الجنة عبد لا يأمن جاره بوائقه.
It is narrated that the Prophet (pbuh) said: A true Muslim is one from [the transgressions of] whose tongue1 and hands, all other Muslims are safe; And a true Mu’min is one from whom people’s lives and wealth are secured; And a true Mujahid is one, who subdues his inner self and forces it into God’s obedience; And a true Muhajir is one, who leaves everything that God has disapproved.
By Him, Who controls my life in His hand, no such person shall enter Paradise, whose neighbor was not safe from his transgressions2.
Being secured from the transgressions of one’s tongue implies that other Muslims do not feel threatened or at risk from his slander, backbiting or abuse.
This narrative should not be construed as one defining the terms ‘Muslim’, ‘Mu’min’, ‘Mujahid’ and ‘Muhajir’. On the contrary, the narrative should be seen as one describing the necessary affects of accepting Islam, of being true in one’s faith and of the true spirit of Jihad – fighting for the cause of God – and Hijrah – migrating from one’s homeland in search of a place where one can freely and peacefully live a life according to one’s beliefs.
Notes on the Text of the Narrative:
This narrative or a part of it, with minor variations, has been reported in Bukhariy (narrative no. 10, 11 and 6119), Muslim (narrative no. 40, 41 and 42), Tirmidhi (narrative no. 2504, 2627 and 2628), Nasaiy (narrative no. 4995, 4996 and 4999), Abu Dawood (narrative no. 2481), Ahmad ibn Hanbal (narrative no. 6515, 6753, 6792, 6806, 6835, 6836, 6889, 6912, 6925, 6953, 6955, 6982, 6983, 7017, 7086, 8918, 12583, 15037, 15247, 15673, 15682, 17068, 19454, 24004 and 24013), Darmiy (narrative no. 2712 and 2716), Ibn Hibban (narrative no. 180, 196, 197, 230, 361, 399, 400, 510 and 4862), Bayhaqiy (narrative no. 20544, 20545 and 20928), Nasaiy’s Sunan Al-Kubra (narrative no. 8701, 11726, 11727 and 11730) Ibn Abi Shaybah (narrative no. 19519 and 26496), Abd al-Razzaq (narrative no. 8817, 20297, 20852) Abu Ya`laa (narrative no. 2273, 3909, 4187, 7286, 7288 and 7492) and Humaidiy (narrative no. 595). Except where otherwise specified, the preferred text is the one reported in Bukhariy, narrative no. 11.
In some narratives, as for instance in Bukhariy, narrative no. 11, the Prophet said these words when he was asked: “أي الإسلام أفضل؟“ (i.e., ‘What kind of Islam is the best?’), while according to Muslim, narrative no. 40, the Prophet (pbuh) said these words in response to the question: “أي المسلمين خير؟“ (i.e., ‘Who is the best among Muslims?’). In yet another reporting, it is reported that the Prophet actually said: “أسلم المسلمين إسلاما“ (i.e. the Muslim, who is complete in his acceptance of Islam). According to some of the narratives in Ahmad ibn Hanbal (as for instance, narrative nos. 24004, 24013 etc.), the Prophet (pbuh) said these words during the address of the last Hajj. Keeping the nature of the reported saying in mind, it is quite understandable that the Prophet (pbuh) may have said these words on different occasions to remind the Muslims of one of their primary responsibilities towards their fellow Muslims, in particular, and their fellow human beings, in general.
In some narratives, as for instance in Ahmad ibn Hanbal 6753, the word “المسلمون“ (i.e. other Muslims) has been replaced by “الناس“ (i.e. other people).
In some narratives, as for instance in Ahmad ibn Hanbal 6925, the word “الناس“ (i.e. people) has been replaced by “المؤمنون“ (i.e. believers).
The sentence “والمؤمن من أمنه الناس على دمائهم وأموالهم“ (i.e., ‘And a true Mu’min is one from whom people’s lives and wealth are secured’) is reported in Tirmidhi, narrative no. 2627.
The sentence “والمجاهد من جاهد نفسه في طاعة الله” (i.e., ‘And a true Mujahid is one, who subdues his inner self and forces it into God’s obedience’) is reported in Ahmad ibn Hanbal, narrative no. 24004.
In some narratives, as, for instance, Bukhariy, narrative no. 11 or Muslim, narrative no. 41, the words: “المهاجر من هجر ما نهى الله عنه“ (i.e. a true Muhajir is one, who leaves everything that God has disapproved) have been omitted. While in some narratives, as for instance Ibn Hibban, narrative no. 196 these words have been replaced by “المهاجر من هجر السيئات“ (i.e. a true Muhajir is one, who leaves bad deeds).
The last part of the text, starting from “والذي نفسي بيده“ till the end is reported in Ahmad ibn Hanbal, narrative no. 12583.
This write-up is prepared by the Hadith Cell of Javed Ahmad Ghamidi