روي أن وفد عبدالقيس أتوا النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال: من القوم؟ قالوا: ربيعة. فقال: مرحبا بالقوم غير خزايا ولا ندامى. قالوا: إنا نأتيك من شقة بعيدة وبيننا وبينك هذا الحي من كفار مضر ولا نستطيع أن نأتيك إلا في شهر حرام فمرنا بشئ نأخذه عنك وندعو إليه من وراءنا ندخل به الجنة وسألوه عن الأشربة. فأمرهم بأربع ونهاهم عن أربع، أمرهم بالإيمان بالله عز وجل وحده. قال: هل تدرون ما الإيمان بالله وحده؟ قالوا: الله ورسوله أعلم. قال: شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له وأن محمدا رسول الله وإقام الصلاة وإيتاء الزكاة وصوم رمضان وحج البيت وتعطوا الخمس من المغنم. ونهاهم عن أربع: عن الحنتم والدباء والنقير والمزفت – وربما قال المقير – وقال: وانتبذوا في الأسقية. قالوا: يا رسول الله، فإن اشتد في الأسقية؟ قال: فصبوا عليه الماء. قالوا: يا رسول الله فقال لهم الثلاثة أو الرابعة: أهريقوه. ثم قال: إن الله حرم علي أو حرم الخمر وكل مسكر حرام. قال: احفظوه وأخبروه من وراءكم.
قالوا: يا نبي الله، ما علمك بالنقير؟ قال: بلى، جذع تنقرونه فتقذفون فيه من التمر ثم تصبون فيه من الماء حتى إذا سكن غليانه شربتموه حتى إن أحدكم ليضرب ابن عمه بالسيف. قال: وفي القوم رجل أصابته جراحة كذلك قال وكنت أخبؤها حياء من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقلت: ففيم نشرب يا رسول الله؟ قال: في أسقية الأدم التي يلاث على أفواهها. قالوا: يا رسول الله، إن أرضنا كثيرة الجرذان ولا تبقى بها أسقية الأدم. فقال نبي الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: وإن أكلتها الجرذان وإن أكلتها الجرذان وإن أكلتها الجرذان.
قال: وقال نبي الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لأشج عبد القيس: إن فيك لخصلتين يحبهما الله الحلم والأناة.
It is reported that a delegation from the tribe of Abd al-Qays came to the Prophet (pbuh). The Prophet asked: ‘Who are these people?’ People replied: ‘From Rabi`ah‘. The Prophet (pbuh) greeted and welcomed them. They said: ‘We come to you from a far-off place. A tribe from amongst the rejecters of Mudir1 lies between you and us, due to which we can only visit you during the sacred months2. Therefore, we ask you to tell us something, which we can comply with and call towards it those whom we have left behind and, thereby, qualify for the eternal bliss of Paradise’. They also asked the Prophet regarding the permitted drinks. The Prophet (pbuh) directed them regarding four3 things and told them to refrain from four things. He directed them to have firm faith in God alone. Then he asked them: ‘Do you understand what it means to have firm faith in God alone?’ They replied: ‘[Please let us know, for] God and His Prophet best know about it’. The Prophet (pbuh) said: ‘Bearing witness that there is only one God, Who is alone and has no partners and that Muhammad is a messenger of God; establishing Sala’h; paying Zaka’h; fasting during Ramadan; undertaking the pilgrimage of Bayet Allah4; and to surrender a fifth of the spoils of war [that you fight on my call], to the treasury’5. Then he told them to refrain from four things: Hantam, Dubbaa, Naqeer and Muzaffat6 and maybe he also mentioned Muqayyar. Then he said: ‘[If you want to ferment a drink], ferment in your ordinary drinking utensils’. They asked: ‘O Prophet, what if the drink becomes intoxicating even in the ordinary drinking utensils?’ The Prophet replied: “Pour some water over it”. They repeated the question three or four times7. The third or the fourth time, the Prophet said: ‘Throw it away’. Then the Prophet said: ‘God has prohibited intoxicants, therefore, all those things which intoxicate the mind are prohibited’. Then the Prophet said: ‘Be mindful of these directives and inform those whom you have left behind, about them’.
They said: ‘Prophet, what do you know about Naqeer?’ The Prophet replied: ‘I know that you drill a hole in a trunk and put dates in it; then you pour water over the dates and leave it there for some time. Then you drink it [and it intoxicates your mind] to the extent that one may attack one’s brothers [without even being aware of it, due to the effects of the drink.]’ The narrator says that there was a man in the delegation, who had been injured in the same manner, as the Prophet had described. The man said that he was hiding his injury from the Prophet (pbuh), being ashamed of it. I asked the Prophet: ‘Then what should we drink in, O Prophet?’ The Prophet replied: ‘You should use your water-skins made of leather while keeping them tied’. He said: ‘Prophet, our land is full of mice, they spoil our leather water skins’. The Prophet replied: ‘Even though they are spoiled by the mice, [this is what you should use]’. The Prophet (pbuh) repeated these words three times8.
The narrator says that the Prophet (pbuh) said to Ashajj9: “You have two qualities, which God likes: Your restraint and your dignity’.
Mudir is the Name of a tribe.
As according to the religious traditions of the Arabs, all mutual aggression of the tribes would cease during the sacred months.
It seems that either most of the narrators have mistakenly added to the directives given by the Prophet (pbuh), as the number of directives clearly exceed four in number or that the specification of “four” is itself a mistake of one or more of the narrators.
i.e. the Ka`bah.
Although ‘faith’ is primarily a phenomenon, which is internal to man, true faith must be followed by the modifications in one’s behavior, as required by this faith: a) The verbal declaration of faith in the oneness of God and Muhammad’s (pbuh) prophethood, especially in extremely oppressive circumstances, is clearly an evidence of the trueness of one’s faith. b) Believing a person to be a prophet of God, after becoming fully convinced about the truthfulness of that person, means holding that person as God’s representative to humankind. Obedience to that person is, in effect, obedience to God. Belief in such a prophet thus becomes a requirement of accepting and surrendering to God’s Truth, which is clearly a requirement of one’s true belief in God. c) Having believed in Muhammad’s (pbuh) prophethood, it follows that whatever he has informed is necessary, has to be considered as such. Thus, establishing Sala’h, paying Zaka’h, fasting during the month of Ramadan and performing Hajj are the essential elements of belief in the prophethood of Muhammad (pbuh) and therefore, belief in God. Surrendering a fifth of the spoils of all wars fought by the Prophet (pbuh) is one of the stated directive of the Qur’an (Al-Anfaal 8: 41).
These are names of utensils, which were generally used for the preparation of liquor. Seen in the light of the Qur’an, and as is clarified in other narratives, the prohibition of these utensils, in fact, implies the prohibition of the liquor prepared in them. The prohibition of liquor is clearly because of its potential affects on human consciousness. Thus, the important thing in the prohibition of liquor is not the material from which it is prepared or the utensils in which it is prepared, but the potential intoxicating affects, which it entails.
That is, if the drink remains intoxicating even after water is poured upon it. The words imply that in response to this question, the Prophet kept saying: ‘Pour more water over it’. However, when the question was repeated the third or the fourth time, the Prophet replied that in such a situation, the drink should be thrown away.
i.e. to stress the importance of the directive.
Ashajj was the name of the leader of the delegation.
Notes on the Text of the Narrative:
This narrative or a part of it, with minor variations, has been reported in Bukhairy (narrative no. 51, 85, 492, 1311, 2864, 3233, 3248, 4020, 4021, 5708, 6724, and 7001) Muslim (narrative no. 23, 24, 25, 26, 3692, 3696, 3697, 3698, 3699, 3700, 3701, 3703, 3704, 3705, 3712, 3713, 3714, 3716, 3717, 3718 and 3719), Tirmidhi (narrative no. 1791 and 2536), Nasaiy (narrative no. 4945, 5078, 5544, 5552, 5597), Abu Dawood (narrative no. 3207, 3208, 3209, 3210, 4057), Ahmad ibn Hanbal (narrative no. 1916, 3232, 4401, 4753, 8302, 9978, 10746, 11119, 11422, 15008, 17161, 17162, 19746, 22636), Ibn Khuzaymah (narrative no. 307, 1879, 2245, 2246), Ibn Hibban (narrative no. 157, 172, 4541, 5401, 7295), Bayhaqiy (narrative no. 7682, 12500, 12528, 17205, 17207, 17208, 17209, 17251) Ibn Abi Shaybah (narrative no. 16929, 16930, 23791, 30310), Abu Ya`laa (narrative no. 2543, 6851). Except where otherwise specified, the selected text has been reported in Bukhariy, narrative no. 85.
The preferred sentence “فمرنا بشئ نأخذه عنك وندعو إليه من وراءنا“ (i.e., ‘tell us something, which we can comply with and call towards it those whom we have left behind’) – as reported in Bukhariy’s narrative no. 492 – has been rendered as “فمرنا بأمر نخبر به من وراءنا“ (i.e., ‘tell us something, which we can tell those we have left behind’) in Bukhariy’s narrative no. 85.
The sentence “وسألوه عن الأشربة“ (i.e., ‘they asked him about the permitted drinks’) – as reported in Bukhariy’s narrative no. 51 has been omitted in Bukhariy’s narrative no. 85.
The sentence “فأمرهم بأربع“ (“he directed them regarding four things”) is replaced by “بثلاث” (“regarding three things”) in Nasaiy, narrative no. 5597, and is followed by reference only to bearing witness to the oneness of God, establishing Sala’h and the payment of Zaka’h. It seems that either most of the narrators have mistakenly added to the directives given by the Prophet (pbuh), as the number of directives clearly exceed four in number or that the specification of “four” is itself a mistake of one or more of the narrators.
In some of the narratives, the whole phrase relating to belief in the one God and its explanation has been omitted. For instance, see Bukhairy, narrative no. 5708. While in some other narratives, this phrase is replaced by “اعبدوا الله ولا تشركوا” (i.e. Worship only the one God and do not ascribe partners to Him), as reported in Muslim, narrative no. 25.
The phrase “وحده لا شريك له“ (i.e., ‘Who is alone and does not have any partners’) is reported in Bukhariy, narrative no. 6724, but it has been omitted in Bukhariy’s narrative no. 85.
The phrase “وأن محمدا رسول الله“ (i.e., ‘and that Muhammad is God’s messenger’) has been omitted in some narratives, as, for instance, in Bukhairy, narrative no. 1311.
The phrase “وصوم رمضان“ (i.e., ‘fasting during the month of Ramadan’) has been omitted in some narratives, as, for instance, in Bukhariy, narrative no. 1311.
The phrase “وحج البيت“ (i.e., ‘Hajj of the Bayet Allah‘) – as reported in Ahmad ibn Hanbal, narrative no. 3232 – has been omitted in Bukhariy’s narrative no. 85.
“حنتم“, “الدباء“, “النقير“, “المزفت“ and “المقير“ are all names of utensils, which were generally used for the preparation of liquor. The prohibition of these utensils, in fact, implies the prohibition of the liquor prepared in them, as has also been mentioned by one of the narrators by the insertion of the words: “ما انتبذ في“ (i.e. whatever is fermented in these utensils), as reported in Bukhariy, narrative no. 4020. The names of these utensils vary considerably in the reported narratives. For instance, according to some narratives, there is an addition of the words “والمزادة المجبوبة“, see Nasaiy, narrative no. 5552. While, on the other hand, there are other narratives in which these utensils have specifically been restricted to “الدباء“ and “المزفت“, For instance in Bukhairy (narrative no. 5159, 5165 and 5166), Muslim (narrative no. 3688, 3689, 3690, 3691, 3693, 3694, 3695 and 3707), Nasaiy (narrative no. 5532, 5533, 5534, 5535, 5536), Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (narrative no. 600, 24489, 25594 and 25595), Bayhaqiy (narrative no. 17243, 17244, 17247, 17248, 17249, 17250), Ibn Abi Shaybah (narrative no. 23782, 23806) Musnad Al-Humaidiy (narrative no. 1081), Abu Ya`laa (narrative no. 4344).
The phrase “وربما قال المقير“ is given in in Bukhariy, narrative no. 51. In some narratives, this part has been rendered as: “لا تشربوا في الدباء والنقير والظروف المزفتة والحنتمة“ (i.e. do not drink from Al-Dubbaa, Al-Naqeer and the utensils of Muzaffat and Hantam), as, for instance, in Bukhariy’s narrative no. 7001.
A similar implication as conveyed by the words “وانتبذوا في الأسقية“ (i.e., ‘you should ferment your drinks in your drinking utensils’) in the preferred text, is implied in another narrative reported by Abu Ya`laa (narrative no. 2543), where Ibn Abbas (ra) says: “جاءنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فسقيناه من هذا النبيذ يعني نبيذ السقاية فشرب ثم قال أحسنتم هكذا فاصنعوه“ (i.e. the Prophet visited us and we served him of this fermented drink – that is, a drink fermented in ordinary drinking utensils. He drank it and said: This is good. This is how you should prepare it).
The following portion of the text is omitted in Bukhariy’s narrative no. 85, but has been reported in Abu Dawood’s narrative no. 3210:
وانتبذوا في الأسقية قالوا يا رسول الله فإن اشتد في الأسقية؟ قال فصبوا عليه الماء. قالوا يا رسول الله فقال لهم الثلاثة أو الرابعة أهريقوه ثم قال إن الله حرم علي أو حرم الخمر وكل مسكر حرام
‘[If you want to ferment a drink], ferment in your ordinary drinking utensils’. They asked: ‘O Prophet, what if the drink becomes intoxicating even in the ordinary drinking utensils?’ The Prophet replied: “Pour some water over it”. They repeated the question three or four times. The third or the fourth time, the Prophet said: ‘Throw it away’. Then the Prophet said: ‘God has prohibited intoxicants, therefore, all those things which intoxicate the mind are prohibited’.
A similar implication is implied in another narrative through the words: “واشربوا في الجلد الموكى عليه فإن اشتد فاكسروا بالماء فإن أعياكم فأهريقوه“ (i.e. Drink from your water-skins, which are kept tied. If the drink becomes strong, lighten it with water. If you don’t succeed in removing its intoxication, then throw it away), as given in Abu Dawood, narrative no. 3209, reported on the authority of a person, who was among the group of people from the tribe of Abd al-Qays, which visited the Prophet (pbuh). A similar implication is also seen in the narrative of the following incident:
روي أنه سأل قوم ابن عباس عن بيع الخمر وشرائها والتجارة فيها فقال أمسلمون أنتم قالوا نعم قال فإنه لا يصلح بيعها ولا شراؤها ولا التجارة فيها قال فسألوه عن النبيذ فقال خرج رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في سفر ثم رجع وقد نبذ ناس من أصحابه في حناتم ونقير ودباء فأمر به فأهريق ثم أمر بسقاء فجعل فيه زبيب وماء فجعل من الليل فأصبح فشرب منه يومه ذلك وليلته المستقبلة ومن الغد حتى أمسى فشرب وسقى فلما أصبح أمر بما بقي منه فأهريق
It is reported that Ibn Abbas (ra) was asked about trading in liquor. He replied: ‘Are you Muslims?’ They replied in the affirmative. Ibn Abbas (ra) said: ‘Then it is not right for you to trade in liquor’. Then the people asked him about fermented drinks. He said: ‘Once when the Prophet returned from a journey, his companions had prepared fermented drinks in the utensils called ‘Hantam’, ‘Naqeer’ and ‘Dubbaa’. He directed them to spill the drinks. Then he called for an ordinary drinking utensil and made a mixture of dates and water in it. He left the mixture to ferment during the night. He drank from the mixture during the next day and the night which followed till the evening of the following day. On the following morning, he directed that the drink still remaining in the utensil be spilt.’
This narrative has been reported in Muslim, narrative no. 3743. A similar narrative is also reported in Bayhaqiy narrative no. 17197.
Regarding the phrase “فتقذفون فيه من التمر“, The narrator is not sure whether the Prophet (pbuh) used the word “القيطاء“ or the word “التمر“, as is mentioned in Muslim’s narrative no. 25.
The last part of the text, starting from the phrase “قالوا يا نبي الله ما علمك بالنقير…“ till the end, is reported in Muslim’s narrative no. 25, but has been omitted in Bukhariy’s narrative no. 85.
The same incident has been reported in Ahmad ibn Hanbal (narrative no. 15008, 17162), with much more detail. The following are some of the main additional points given in the narrative of Ahmad ibn Hanbal are as under:
The leader of the delegation was Munzir ibn `Aaiz (ra), also known as “ (i.e. the injured).
The Prophet (pbuh) greatly honored the delegation and seated their leader on his couch, at his right-hand side.
The Prophet (pbuh) talked about the various towns and villages in their area. The delegation was surprised by the Prophet’s information regarding their towns and villages. The Prophet (pbuh) told the delegation that he had traveled through their area and had liked the place.
The Prophet (pbuh) directed the locals of Medinah to honor the delegation and be hospitable to them, as they were similar to the locals of Medinah in many respects, especially in their voluntarily accepting faith, while most of the Arab tribes persisted in their rejection.
The delegation stayed the night at Medinah.
In the morning, the Prophet (pbuh) asked them whether they had spent the night comfortably. In response, the delegation praised the hospitality of the Medinans and also told the Prophet (pbuh) that their brethren had taught them about the Book of God and the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh). The Prophet (pbuh) expressed his delight at hearing this.
Then each person of the delegation was given in charge of a separate Muslim. The Muslims taught the members of the delegation various important elements of Islam, ranging from various supplications to a Surah or a couple of Surahs of the Qur’an.
Then the Prophet (pbuh) talked about the various qualities of their dates.
At this juncture, the leader of the delegation asks about the various forms of drinks prepared by fermentation of dates and, in response, the Prophet (pbuh) directs them to refrain from preparing drinks in the utensils mentioned in the main narrative.
This write-up is prepared by the Hadith Cell of Javed Ahmad Ghamidi