I am wondering about the Shahada. In the Quran there are 2kafirs who convert to Islam Queen Sheba and Pharaoh of Egypt. Neither one proclaims “there is no God but Allah” and Sheba doesn’t say “Solomon is a prophet of Allah” and Pharaoh didn’t remark “Moses and Aaron are Prophets of Allah”
So I am wondering why the shahada today is “there is no God but Allah and Mohammed is his prophet” because the Quran confirms that to convert you don’t need to remark that Allah is alone or to testify about any of his prophets
The Qur’an is a book of Guidance. It is the Reminder for mankind’s instinctual goodliness. In order to fulfill these functions it wastes no words with things that matter little to mankind’s salvation. In other words, not each time a person submits himself to the Lord and abides by whatever Messenger is present is the Qur’an going to quote the words of submission. As it regards the Queen of Sheba (Arabic Saba) it is quite interesting to note that she does make a shahadah (i.e. affirmation of the Truth) and submits herself to God.
She said: “O my Lord! I have indeed wronged my soul: I do (now) submit (in Islam), with Solomon, to the Lord of the Worlds.” (Al Namal 27:44)
Not only does the Queen pledge her allegiance to God but recognizes the Prophet Solomon who brought her to God’s path and mentions his name. It is obvious that she would not have mentioned the Prophet Muhammad’s name because he did not exist then. Your second assertion regarding Pharaoh’s conversion is unfounded. As a matter of fact Pharaoh does pronounce the shahadah but this did not make him a believer nor was his pronouncement accepted from him. Therefore, it would be absolutely erroneous to claim that he converted to Islam.
We took the Children of Israel across the sea: Pharaoh and his hosts followed them in insolence and spite. At length, when overwhelmed with the flood, he said: “I believe that there is no god except Him Whom the Children of Israel believe in: I am of those who submit (to Allah in Islam).” (Yunus 10:90)
Pharaoh mentions God and submits himself to the Almighty but also mentions the Children of Israel as a manifestation of Moses’ message.
In both instances the affirmation is mentioned, one symbolizing the humility and honesty of submitting to God’s will and the other to the hypocritical and desperate measures that some will take to save themselves. Thus the shahadah has not changed, only the Messengers have. So when a person converts he testifies to Islam by submitting to God and pronouncing his adherence to the message of the Prophet who invited him. It should be appreciated that the Qur’an cannot be accepted as the word of God if a person does not believe in God or that the Prophet Muhammad is His Messenger. Hence, one testifies to this truth then by the natural order of faith follows the percepts as was delivered by the Prophet. Lastly, the Qur’an does not in any away support your view nor does it confirm that a person does not need testify to the singularity of God and to the acceptance of His Messengers. Unless you can somehow support this theory from the Qur’an it cannot be given any serious consideration.
I hope I have clarified the issue.
God knows best.